Thursday, January 31, 2019

The Character of Norma Jean in Shilo Essay -- Shilo Essays

The Character of Norma dungaree in Shilo Norma Jean Moffit is a major character in Bobbie Ann Masons Shilo who undergoes a profound, yet subtle change. She had to unify at the mount of eighteen to the man who got her pregnant, and in a brute(a) twist of fate, the child dies suddenly of crib death. Now at the age of 34, she is ready to have the life she feels she always should have had, however she is stuck in a loveless marriage to a man whose interests are the mated of hers. Her decision to leave her husband, Leroy, at the end of the story seemed a retentive time in coming, and various aspects of her character revealed that desire. These aspects of her character were her devotion to self-improvement, her inability to communicate with her husband, and her apparent unhappiness that Leroy has returned home for good. From the very beginning of the story, Norma Jean is portrayed as a woman continuously trying to transgress herself. She takes the opportunity of Leroys rehabilit ation from his accident to start body mental synthesis. After the body building class is over, she takes a comp...

The Role of the Gods and Fate in Virgils The Aeneid Essay -- Aeneid V

The Role of the Gods and Fate in Virgils The AeneidAre the deeds of psyche characters in the Aeneid controlled by the gods or by fate? Aeneas must complete the go come out of the gods, small-arm enduring the wrath of other gods, all the while being a worthy predecessor of Augustus and founder of the Roman people. Of course, the trojan is successful because he gives himself up to these other obligations, while those who resist the will of the gods, Dido and Turnus, die sad deaths.Juno, the queen of gods, attempts to terminate Aeneas and his men in sustain I of the Aeneid. The metropolis of Carthage is Junos favorite, and it has been prophesized that the race of the Trojans will one day destroy that city. This is too much for Juno to bear as another Trojan, Paris, has already detest her. And so she calls on King Aeolus, the god of the winds, telling him to bring a great pull elaborate upon Aeneas? kick the bucket. Aeolus obeys and unleashes a fierce hurricane upon the battl e-wearied Trojans. However, Neptune, the god of the sea, feels the storm over his dominion he criticizes Aeolus for overstepping his bounds, and calms the waters just as Aeneas fleet seems doomed. Seven ships are left, and they head for the nearest land in sight, the edge of Libya. Aeneass mother, Venus sees the Trojans poor state and pleads to Jupiter to end their suffering. Jupiter as reliables her that Aeneas will eventually scrape up his promised home in Italy, and that two of his descendants, Romulus and Remus, will found the mightiest empire in the world. Then Jupiter sends a god down to the Phoenicians, the people of Carthage, to make sure they are welcoming to the Trojans. Juno hears that the Trojans are destined to found a city that will destroy her Carthage. That city is Rome, and ... ... and in an angry mob unbending fire to the fleet. The Trojan men see the smoke, rush up the margin and throw water on the ships, but the burning does not stop. Finally, Aeneas prays t o Jupiter to but the fleet, and immediately a rainstorm comes, putting out the flames. The goddesses Juno and Venus continue their bitterness by further intervention in the journey of the Trojans. At this geological period it almost seems to be overdone the gods are driving the plot, not the hero. Aeneas has been reduced to a reactionary role as the different factions on Olympus duke it out over his fate, and send either aid or abuse down to the Trojans. Incapable to stop the burning of his fleet, he pitifully begs Jupiter to either serve well or kill him, so disheartened is he at his controlling maltreatment by the gods. Works CitedGransden, Karl W. Virgil The Aeneid. Cambridge Cambridge UP, 1990.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Discuss the Various Attitudes to Marriage and Courtship

Discuss the Various Attitudes to Marriage and cause that Jane Austen presents in feel and Prejudice In Jane Austens account book disdain and Prejudice she shows various attitudes of conjugation and courtship through each character. or so of these attitudes to coupling and courtship argon in truth different to the attitudes of most stack today. This book is of importly ab bug by sexual union so it is genuinely behind and interesting to comp are the flavours of marriage from the early nineteenth century to behavior straightway. Jane Austen mentions marriage for the initiative time, in Pride and Prejudice, in the in truth outset sentenceIt is a truth univers eachy acknowledged, that a maven humilitary personnel world in possession of a levelheaded fortune, must be in want of a wife. (Chapter 1, varlet 51) This is possibly the most grand acknowledgment in the book because it sets the tone for the rest of the novel and it is where we first resonate that the book i s actu completelyy about marriage. Marriage was more than than of a disdain arrangement consequently. For young women it was actually important, particularly for the white avenss, that you married a man who was as rich as possible. The amount of money that men had and the lifestyle based on that amount played a very important part in the stupefying of who to marry.How a great deal tell apart played a part in the equation was a lot smaller than how oftentimes the money did. Mrs white avens, throughout the book, we rout out see is a very loud, unparliamentary woman. Her character could be depict as being a caricature. We first hear of Mr Charles Bingley when Mrs Bennet is telling her husband, Mr Bennet, about him. We dont canvas besides much about him other than the position that he is very affluent and he is in the area. Mr Bennet asks at this lay to Mrs Bennet if he is married or single. She replies Oh single, my dear, to be sure A single man of large fortune four or five curtilage a year. What a fine thing for our girls (Chapter 1, summon 51) From what Mrs Bennet says we can instantly see that she is very excited at the news of Mr Bingley being in the area. All that she has heard is that he is wealthy and single and she is already picturing him marrying one of her misss You must know that I am ideal of his marrying one of them. (Chapter 1, page 51) We can see that Mrs Bennets main aim is to redeem her daughters married to rich men because while she is move to inform Mr Bennet of, in her opinion, great news that Mr Bingley has just arrived into the area, Mr Bennet shows no interest, which agitates her further. Mr. Bennet, how can you abuse your own children in such(prenominal) a instruction? You take delight in vexing me. You have no compassion for my poor nerves. (Chapter 1, page 52) Elizabeth, however, has different views to marriage compared to her mother. Her opinions of marriage are very much exchangeable the opinions of mos t women today. Of course she takes into account how much money she would have as a result of the marriage entirely having a rich husband is non all she considers in the decision of marriage. For Elizabeth love has to be included with the marriage no matter how wealthy the husband would be.This is why she refuses two marriage proposals from Mr Fitz exitiam Darcy and Mr Collins later in the book, because although accepting either marriage would financially improve her lifestyle she does not love either man. Of course later in the book she does veer her mind and fall in love with Mr Darcy. She shows this with various changes of her character and opinion of him throughout the book and later accepts Darcys abet marriage proposal. This book was set to be in the late 18th century at which loving gatherings were particularly important.Balls and musical evenings were seen as being the centre of social life. These gatherings were great opportunities to notice a partner. Jane Bennet fi rst met Mr Bingley at a wrap in Meryton. (They later marry). At the same town ball Elizabeth Bennet first met Mr Darcy too. (They also marry later in the novel). At this point in the novel, however, Elizabeth does not love or even akin Mr Darcy. Elizabeth remained with no very cordial feelings towards him. (Chapter 3, page 59) This was quoted just after Elizabeth overheard Mr Darcy and Mr Bingley talking at the ball.Mr Bingley was trying to persuade Mr Darcy to dancing with somebody and suggested specifically for him to dance with Elizabeth. He, however, did not think that she was good enough for him She is tolerable but not handsome enough to tempt me (Chapter 3, page 59) This signifies that Mr Darcy does not appreciate women that are of a much lower class than him. He would rather not marry a poor woman. Unfortunately for him he falls in love with Elizabeth later. During chapter seven Jane Bennet receives a letter from Caroline Bingley inviting lose Bennet out to lunch.In t he late 18th century women were very feisty in comparison to women today. They were delicate in that, for example, if they were in the heat for too long they would feel headachy or faint. Mrs Bennet obviously knew this because, when Jane asked for the carriage, Mrs Bennet purposely said no No, my dear, you had better go on horseback, because it seems likely to rainwater and then you must stay all night. (Chapter 7, page 77) This quote proves the point that ladies during this time wanted nothing more than to have their daughters married, Mrs Bennet in particular.She is willing to risk her daughters health and actually wants her daughter to feel ill so she can stay the night at Mr Bingleys support rather than just go out for lunch. It shows how farthermost Mrs Bennet is willing to push her daughters into the path of suitable men in order to secure a good marriage. Later in the chapter, when we find out that Jane in fact does have to stay the night callable to feeling ill, Elizab eth decides to visit her but intends on walking to Mr Bingleys house instead of using the carriage. Mrs Bennet claims that it is a foolish whim and will not be fit to be seen when she arrives. Elizabeth replies I shall be very fit to see Jane which is all I want. (Chapter 7, page 78) This quote supports the fact that Elizabeth has no intention of trying to impress the Bingleys or Mr Darcy by the way she looks. The opinions of her are very neo in terms of marriage so she does not really care for what she looks like. Mrs Hurst and sink Bingley both think of Elizabeth as quite disgusting at this point. It brought them great shock when she arrived in her rotten stockings (Chapter 7, page 79). When Elizabeth goes to go check on Jane after dinner Mrs Hurst and Miss Bingley cant help but abuse her (Chapter 8, page 81) as soon as she leaves.Mrs Hurst says I shall never for dumbfound her appearance this morning. She looked intimately wild. (Chapter 8, page 81) The contrast of opinion s of Elizabeth and Mrs Hurst and Miss Bingley again shows how much more modern Elizabeth is compared to every other lady in the novel. We soon meet Mr Collins. Jane Austen has create verbally Mr Collins to have a very exaggerated personality or character of smug pomposity making him, like Mrs Bennet other caricature. During chapter 19 he purports to Elizabeth I singled you out as the companion of my futurity life.But ahead I am run away with by my feelings for this subject, peradventure it will be advisable for me to state apprehensions for marrying - (Chapter 19, page 147) Mr Collins continues to communicate of why he has chosen to propose. He claims that the church says it is a good idea to get married so he would simply be setting an example for other people. He also claims that it would bring him cheer and that Catherine de Bourgh, his benefactor, wishes for him to be married also. He then goes on to say what would take a chance when they were to be married. Elizabeth interrupts him You are too hasty, Sir, she cried. You forget that I have make no answer. (Chapter 19, page 148) Indeed, Elizabeth is right. Mr Collins has not waited for Elizabeth to even agree to the marriage but is already referring to what he predicts will happen in the time to come when they supposedly get married. He does this because he expects her to accept the marriage proposal. The idea of Elizabeth rejecting Mr Collins marriage proposal was alien to him. If Elizabeth was to accept the proposal then she would have a better life financially so in that time there was not a great deal of reason for her to reject the proposal.When she does reject the proposal he doesnt seem to view it, declaring it is usual with young ladies to reject the addresses of the man whom they secretly mean to accept, when he first applies for their favour sometimes the refusal is repeated a second or even a third time. (Chapter 19, page 148) He clearly thinks that all women initially refuse a propo sal so as not to appear too eager or too desperate to get married when in fact that is their intention all along. This is why he goes on to express his confidence that he will eventually winding her to the altar.Elizabeth again declines the proposal but Mr Collins will not have it. He again states his belief of women not wanting to sound too eager by accepting a proposal. Elizabeth again declines the offer before Mr Collins tries to persuade her to marry him. Jane Austen shows by this, how women were expected to accept proposals if it would financially improve their life. Jane Austen also shows how the modernisation of the character Elizabeth affects the other characters such as Mr Collins and his disbelief of her rejection.A few days after this Mr Collins proposes to Charlotte Lucas. For this moment, the centre of the first sentence of the novel seems defensible. Unlike Elizabeth she accepts the proposal. The views of this between Mrs Bennet, Charlotte Lucas and Elizabeth Bennet are all very different. The prospect of financial security outweighs any solicit or love for Mr Collins character according to Charlotte Lucas I am not romantic you know. I never was. I ask single a comfortable home (Chapter 22, page 165) Charlotte Lucas and her family view the proposal as a triumph.This quote shows how Charlotte Lucas opinion of marriage is not modern like Elizabeths. Elizabeth views this as disappointing. She thinks that it is ridiculous that Charlotte would marry for such a reason as to financially improve her lifestyle. Mrs Bennet is also disappointed but at Elizabeth. She blames her child for letting such a great opportunity pussyfoot through the familys fingers. When Mr Bennet dies, Mr Collins will own his estate. straightway that he is to marry Charlotte Lucas instead of Elizabeth they cannot save it. This thought brings Mrs Bennet more distress. When Kitty and Lydia first ind out they think of it as nothing more than gossip as Mr Collins is only a clergy man (Chapter 23, page 168). Darcys first proposal to Elizabeth has a vital importance in the novel and could be described as signalling a turning point. Darcy is passing rich and earns ? 10,000 a year. If Darcy were to propose to anyone other than Elizabeth they would probably agree to the marriage due to the large sum of money he receives per year. Elizabeth however rejects him This actually does show how her opinion is different in comparison to other women in terms of marriage.Elizabeth informs Darcy about her knowledge of Wickham and Jane and Bingley, justifying her reasons to reject his proposal. We can tell that he is shocked at this His complexion became pale with anger, and the disturbance of his mind was microscopical in every feature. (Chapter 34, page 222) His anger signifies that he was not expecting rejection. Mr Darcy is described in the book many times as being very proud and snobby. He must find it exceedingly confusing as to why a lady with such a poor context a nd family would reject his proposal, as he believes that he is quite magnificent.However his loyalty to his recall dose Mr Bingley allows us to forget the arrogance when he gives Elizabeth a letter the side by side(p) morning explaining that he did not believe that Jane loved Bingley, and that he thought that if Bingley was to propose to her then he would make a fool of himself. He merely was trying to protect Bingley he claims. When Elizabeth visits Darcys estate with the Gardiners to her impress Darcy is there despite the fact that she had been told he would be out of town until the following day. After a few conversations between them Elizabeth thinks Why is he so altered?From what can it proceed? It cannot be for me, it cannot be for my interestingness that his manners are thus softened. My reproofs at Hunsford could not work such a change as this. It is impossible that he should still love me. (Chapter 43, page 276) Elizabeth ponders to herself as to whether Darcy loves he r still or not. She is wondering how it is that, after her incivility when she rejected his proposal, he can appear to be so gauzy and polite to her and the Gardiners. She considers the fact that he may still love her, as he is more gentlemanly than she has ever seen him to be. This shows how much love he has for Elizabeth.You could also look at it from the point of view that he is fleck for Elizabeth by trying to flatter her. He does in fact propose to her again later in the novel. Lydia is well aware of the attitudes of courtship and marriage but because she is so besotted with Mr Wickham later in the novel she forgets all of the rules and elopes with him. The family are so shocked and disgusted at the behaviour of Lydia (and Wickham). eventide Elizabeth who has more modern views on courtship and marriage is worried how Lydias misbehaviour will reflect on her family and what its consequences will be for her family with Darcy.When she hears of Lydias elopement she tells Darcy that she is distressed by some dreadful news (Chapter 46, page 294) and Darcys response is to declare that he is grieved shocked. (Chapter 46, 295). Elizabeth soon observed, and instantly tacit it. Her power was sinking every thing must sink to a lower place such a proof of family weakness, such an assurance of the deepest disgrace. (Chapter 46, page 295) This shows how sincerely yours embarrassed Elizabeth was. Her views on everything are so modern compared to most ladies and gentlemen in the 18th century however this even shocked her.We find out that Lydia and Wickham agree to get married later in the novel. The reactions of her family are very predictable. Mrs Bennet is so overjoyed that Lydia is getting married at such a young age that she forgets about her disgusting behaviour. Jane hopes they have a happy life together. Elizabeth is happy that they are marrying but is disappointed at Lydias behaviour. Mr Bennet is angry at Lydia for putting the family in the lieu of havin g to give the Gardiners money. Lydia is so happy with herself because of her marriage that she is completely taking improvement of it all.She says to Jane Ah Jane, I take your place now, and you must go lower, because I am a married woman. (Chapter 51, page 329) Lydia and her mother are very alike in terms of how excited and proud they are to the fact that Lydia is now married. They are both very proud so Lydia in this chapter tries to find any way she can to show off the fact that she is married. When Darcy proposes to Elizabeth the second time, ironically it is all due to the fact that Lady Catherine de Bourgh visited Elizabeth and tried to stick them apart.When Lady Catherine told Darcy he was delighted that Elizabeth refused to promise to turn down a proposal from him if he was to make one. Of course Elizabeth accepts the proposal. Darcy and Elizabeth have a stick wedding with Jane and Bingley. To conclude, one of the main features of Jane Austens writing is to carefully set out how young ladies should behave in the late 18th century. In Pride and Prejudice, by using a heroine such as Elizabeth she gives an secondary and possibly more modern view of behaviour. In this novel, Elizabeths views on marriage are particularly modern.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Comparing The Haitian To The French Revolution Essay

Haiti, known as Saint-Domingue before the renewal, it was the richest village in the Americas in 1789. Al around half(a) a million slaves toiled on its sugar, coffee, indigo, and cotton plantations. to a greater ex ten-spott than thirty thousand new African slaves arrived each year, both to substitute the m any that died of e actuallywherework or disease and also to fuel the fast stinting expansion that the colony experienced in the 1780s. Before the cut revolution, the masters were, first of all, the major power after him, the nobles and clergy. From the King at the passing to the poorest noble, they used their power badly. The rulers treated the ruled, the vast mass of the kingdom, as flock created for their convenience, to supply them with m wizardy and to serve them. The King demanded great sums to provide armies for his wars, to debate himself with a brilliant and luxurious Court, to defray the expenses of government. As we go illuminate ground in the french and H aitian revolution, they were both cruel and bloody, were there any important similarities and differences? They both were spurred for similar reasons by oppressed pack, but they were significantly different economicalally, very different leaders and events. The causes for the French and Haitian revolutions were moderately uniform. An unfair distribution of power betwixt affectionate clanes, restricted liberties and re deferation, and a large gap between the rich and the poor were the main catalysts for both revolutions. The loving class situations of Haiti and France were main causes of both revolutions. Social mobility was nearly extinct in both societies. The Haitian social class system was especially stratified because it was based on race. The highest positions in the government and military were only held by Peninsulares. Peninsulares were individuals that were born in Europe and had come over to the colony to rule. Directly under the Peninsulares in the social clas s system were the Creoles. These individuals controlled near of the push down and the business. Creoles were defined as individuals whose parents were both Peninsulares in the colonies. The next social classes were the Mestizo and the Mulattoes, who were half European and half Native American or African. Finally, all pure Africans or Natives were condemned to slavery. Slaves had no property, m sensationy, or rights. Most of the individuals in Haiti were slaves. Conversely, the French social system was also very stratified and consisted heavily of the lowest class. The system is broken down between three nations the clergy, magnanimousness, and the tertiary estate which consisted of a lower, middle and upper class. Most of the third estate consisted of peasants. The clergy encompassed one percent of the population. The one percent controlled twenty percent of the land and did not pay taxes. The 2nd estate encompassed the nobility, cardinal percent of the population. The n obility owned twenty-five percent of the land and did not pay taxes. The stay ninety-seven percent of France belonged to the third estate. The third estate held less than half the land in France and was forced to support the heavy burden of tax income in the bankrupt nation. The overwhelming gap between the political and economic power of the high and low classes caused resentment in both societies. A miniscule number of tribe, had privilege, comfort and luxury while the majority of people suffered. Social inequalities would a huge catalyst for both revolutions. The lowest class of each society realized their strength in numbers and rage for their cause. The 3rd estate broke free from France and created the Declaration of the Rights of Man. This document defined a set of rights that pertained to every man from any class. From there, the 3rd estate moved forward in taking the country. The Haitian slaves utilized their ample population and excellent leadership to overthrow their op pressors. Toussaint Louverture was the leader of the revolution and a pivotal factor in defeating the Europeans. Significant overall economic differences were present between Haiti and France before the revolutions occurred.France was nearly bankrupt by the time the revolution began. fights with England and the American Revolution had been extremely costly for France. The nation was in debt and the social elite were not paying taxes to aid the dying thrift. The large economic strain on France caused heavy taxation of the bottom social class. In contrast, the economy of Haiti was not a factor that fueled the revolution. The Haitian economy was thriving. Free labor from slaves created a surplus of goods. Also these two countries had two very different leaders leading the revolutions the Haitian revolution leader Toussaint Louverture began his military career as a leader of the 1791 slave rise in the French colony of Saint Domingue. Initially allied with the Spaniards of coterminou s Santo Domingo, Toussaint switched allegiance to the French when they abolished slavery. He gradually established control over the whole island, expelled British invaders and used political and military tactics to gain dominance over his rivals. Throughout his years in power, he worked to remediate the economy and security of Saint Domingue. He restored the plantation system apply paid labor, negotiated trade treaties with Britain and the United States and maintained a large and well-disciplined army. Whereas the French revolution leader Maximilien de Robespierre. Maximilien Marie Isidore de Robespierre was born in Arras on 6 May 1758, the son of a lawyer. He was educated in genus Paris and entered the same profession as his father. He was elected a deputy of the estates-general (a form of parliament, but without real power) that met in May 1789, and subsequently served in the guinea pig Constituent Assembly. He was a politician, and one of the best-known and most influenti al figures of the French Revolution. Robespierre became increasingly popular for his attacks on the monarchy and his advocacy of elected reforms. In April 1790, was elected president of the powerful Jacobin political club. After the nightfall of the monarchy in horrible 1792, Robespierre was elected first deputy for Paris to the National Convention. The convention abolished the monarchy, declared France a republic and put the king on trial for treason, all measures strongly supported by Robespierre. The king was punish in January 1793. Haitians usually relate the Bois Caman ceremony as a historical event that started their war of independence, but modern encyclopedism suggests that details about the episode might owe more to figment than to reality. There probably was not one, but two slave gatherings, one held at the Normand de Mzy plantation in Morne Rouge on August 14, which the French uncovered by torturing slave participants, and an new(prenominal) one in Bois Caman held a week later, about which very little is known. According to Lon-Franois Hoffmanns Haitian the second meeting were invented by Antoine Dalmas in his Histoire de la rvolution de Saint-Domingue (1793) in order to submit the slave gathering as a bloody, satanic assembly.On the other side, The Womens March on Versailles was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution. The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread. Their demonstrations readily became intertwined with the activities of revolutionaries who were seeking liberal political reforms and a constitutional monarchy for France. The market women and their unlike allies grew into a mob of thousands and, encouraged by revolutionary agitators, they looted the city armory for weapons and marched to the Palace of Versailles. The crowd besieged the palace and in a dramatic and violent confront ation they successfully pressed their demands upon King Louis XVI. The next day, the crowd compelled the king, his family, and most of the French Assembly to return with them to Paris. These events in effect ended the independent authority of the king. The march symbolized a new parallelism of power that displaced the ancient privileged orders of the French nobility and favored the nations common people, collectively termed the Third Estate. Bringing together people representing disparate sources of the Revolution in their largest numbers yet, the march on Versailles turn out to be a defining moment of that Revolution. To conclude, the series of events that transformed the French colony of Saint-Domingue into the independent nation of Haiti lasted from 1791 to 1804, and the French revolution lasted around ten years, from 1789 until 1799. They both were around the same time, both successful, but had some differences between them such as racial, leadership, also economically differe nt.Popkin, Jeremy D.. A concise taradiddle of the Haitian revolution. Malden, MA Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print. World at War spirit counterpoint and association Username. World at War Understanding Conflict and Society Username. http// (accessed May 26, 2013). Jean-Jacques Dessalines (emperor of Haiti) cyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica. http// (accessed May 26, 2013). Mikaberidze, Alexander . World at War Understanding Conflict and Society Username. World at War Understanding Conflict and Society Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013. . Hugo, Victor. Les miserables. New York Modern Library, 1992. Print. french revolution. Gale Virtual Reference Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 May 2013.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Therapeutic Actions Of Gamma-Oryzanol As A Novel Food Supplement

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a reciprocal gastro intestinal disorder in which the virtually wizard experiences episodes of symptoms arising from the large intestines, without the straw man of both definite disorder. It is characterized by the armorial bearing of a number of symptoms much(prenominal) as abdominal suffering, bloating, aggravation, unfit bowel habits, looseness of the bowels deadening, action of gas, dis beed abdomen, sensation of having evacuated incompletely, presence of mucous in the stools, and so on The symptoms tend to decrease when the individual passes stools and turns when the individual sustains aliment.Several other non-specific symptoms much(prenominal) as na consumptiona, vomiting, chest pain, make upd urination, incomplete vesica evacuation, tiredness, malaise, etc, argon withal experienced. The incidences range from 7% to 17%, and the mean preponderance including undetected cases is 2. 9 to 6. 5%. The incidence is higher in fema les than males (61-68%). The findings be to be similar in Australia, US and Europe. The incidence according to the sub- graphic symbols includes constipation type is 16%, dissipation type is 21% and alternate type is 63%. In America, one out of every five adults develops IRB, except the incidences seem to be greater (Tack, J. 006, 701-709). The exact cause for IBS is still non understood. The intestinal wall consists of several(prenominal) layers of muscles that propel the digested food from the stomach to the rectum. This takes push through in a co-ordinated fashion, such that the relaxation and contraction of the muscles propel the food in the right direction. However, in IBB, the contractions atomic number 18 more forceful and drawn-out causing several symptoms such as abdominal pain, production of gas, diarrhoea, etc. Sometimes, the contractions whitethorn be weak and very short, leading to the stools becoming problematical and dry.As the disease is seen with higher incidences in accepted families, potential genetic factors are withal macrocosm suggested. Several factors such as alternations in the heart and soul control to the muscles, changes in the control of sensations to the muscles, intestinal dysbiosis, hormonal problems (because the symptoms tend to worsen around the menstrual period in women), etc. The symptoms whitethorn tend to worsen especially on phthisis of legitimate foods (such as caffein products or alcohol), stress, or certain illness (Mayo Clinic, 2005, Introduction, Causes & adenine Risk Factors).Studies fool armyn that eating certain food substances and overturning others whitethorn in fact process to lower the symptoms of IBS. Patients seeking dietary advice benefit a lot from consumption of a specific diet and avoidance of certain substances. Some patients may benefit from elimination of certain food substances and slow reintroduction into the diet. The individual should avoid consuming large criterions of foo d at one time. Instead, smaller doses should be bringd more often (NDDIC, 2006). Individuals with the diarrhoea subtype may have symptoms especially when they consume lactose or dairy products, excessive amounts of fruits or sorbitol.Individuals with the constipation subtype may experience symptoms whenever they avoid type and weewee in their diet, as the stools endure hard and dry. Some individuals may experience symptoms of excessive gas production, bloating and flatulence, whenever they consume beans, cabbage, cauliflower or uncooked broccoli. Consumption of low to moderate amounts of blue in the diet may succor to shrivel up the symptoms of IBB, because fat stimulates the intestinal sensations and motor activities (Mertz, H. R. , 2003). Although references lack the experimental data, it has been recommended as a therapy for individuals suffering from IRB.Fibres are carbohydrates that are not digestible, but can be broken shine by certain bacteria gratuity in the intest ines. Fibres are of 2 types, namely, soluble fibre and insoluble fibres. The soluble fibres are present in several fruits such as citrus fruits, apples and beans, and excessively in certain vegetable such as psyllium. These soluble fibres dissolve in the water supply and form a gel-like substance. It helps to evacuate the stools, and thus can be utilised in both the diarrhoea and constipation subtypes. Psyllium supplements are also available in supplements.Insoluble fibres on the other hand, add bulk to the stools, cast off them softer and help it to be evacuated easily. They are present in wheat bread, bran and several vegetables (AAFP, 2006). So far, three placebo controlled studies have been performed on psyllium, but only one comprehensive trial has been completed. Psyllium helped to reduce the stool transit time, and also improved the easy, frequency and consistency of the stools, compared to placebo. However, side- frames may also develop including allergy, defective absorp tion after administration of certain drugs and obstruction of the intestines.Peppermint oil also showed some amount of benefit in IBS, by reducing inactive muscle contraction, and had a more superior effect compared to a placebo (Sheisenger, M. H. , 2006, GI Disorders Addressed by CAM Therapies). Bran received a lot of enthusiasm for use in IBS in the 1970s and 1980s. It was recommended routinely by the gastroenterologist. However, RCTs show only limited benefits. When administered to 14 patients, the symptoms of pain, discomfort, elimination of mucous containing stools, had decreased, compared to those not organism administered a high fibre diet.In another RCT, bran tablets and placebo tablets were being administered to patients belonging to 2 groups. Constipation had reduced in the case group. Some individual may not tolerate bran and may instead benefit from consuming unanimous wheat bread (Bouchier, A. , 1984, 872-873). Some individuals may give complaints of gas production a nd bloating whenever they consume a diet rich in fibres. This commonly occurs when the fibre pith is food is suddenly being increased. Such symptoms are usually temporary and slowly reduce, as the individual gets used to the higher fibre content in the diet.The individual should eat a high fibre diet by consuming a variety of foods. Fibre supplements including Metamucil or Citrucel should be consumed gradually, along with plenty of water (NDDIC, 2006). Studies have shown that individuals developing pain may also benefit from high fibre content as they tends to keep the intestines mildly distended. In this way, stools can be emitted painlessly. The fibre content should be increased by 2 to 3 grams a day. Besides, increase the fibre content, the individual should also consume large quantities of water a day, as it helps to reduce both diarrhoea and constipation.Six to eight glasses of water should be consumed in a day. The individual should avoid sodas, as they increase the gas prod uction and cause a lot of discomfort (NDDIC, 2006). prodigal amounts of fat and caffeine can cause the intestines to contract excessively resulting in development of severe abdominal cramps. Others foods such as alcohol, chewing gum, and deep brown should also be avoided. Chewing gum may increase the use of air into the digestive tract. The individual should have an idea of the foods that cause problem, and should whence avoid them after discussing with the physician (AAFP, 2006).Probiotics are food supplements that contain microorganisms which are potentially beneficial for health. These substances ensure that the gut is being colonised by friendly organisms. In the early part of the 20th century, Metchinkoff discovered that certain bacterium when consumed in the form of foods such as yoghurt could help improve the micro-flora present in the intestines. Studies conducted in individuals suffering from demonstrated that such patients generate large quantities of hydrogen gas and volatile short-chain fatty acids, suggesting a disturbance in the gut microflora (P&G Health Sciences Institute, 2005).RCTs conducted on individuals with IBS consuming Lactobacillus plantarum showed that several symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and flatulence were relieved. Probiotics adjust the intestinal microflora to a more health state. numerous researchers feel that IBS may be caused due to significant changes in the intestinal microflora. Another study showed that individuals with IBS having their intestinal microflora removed through colonic lavage and having microflora inserted from a healthy donor benefited with a reduction in the symptoms.Streptococcus faecium (brand name Pareghurt) contained in freeze-dried cultures help to improve the symptoms in about 81% of the patients. Studies may not show significant benefits of alternative therapies, but some amount of advantages can be obtained (Hasler, W. L. , 1999, 1900). Probiotics administered in the form of Bifidobac terium infantilis, Lactobacillus plantarum and VSL (a combination of micoorganisms), seemed to produce cock-a-hoop effects, although they seemed to vary from one individuals to another.This may be due to variations in the dose, presence of ineffective bacteria, or other factors (Tallej, N. J. , 2006). Probiotics are also effective in reducing diarrhoea. Previous meta-analysis conducted with Lactobacillus strains have demonstrated that probioitcs help to reduce diarrhoea following administration of antibiotics. Another trial conducted utilising a different bacteria (S. boulardii) showed that the bacteria contained an enzyme which helped to destroy a toxin secreted by another microorganism that caused diarrhoea (Sheisenger, M. H. 2006, Gastrointestinal Disorders Addressed by CAM Therapies).Some of the probiotics available in the market straight off contain different strains of lactobacillus bacteria. These strains colonise different areas of the intestinal mucosa, encourage tax de duction of several vitamins required by the body, prevent the disease-causing microorganisms from colonising the gut and also helps in the digestion of food (as these bacteria contain beneficial enzymes). Some bacteria such as Bifidobaceria additionally help in metabolism of bile acids (P&G Health Sciences Institute, 2005).Probiotics do seem to be very efficacious when consumed often as a supplement in IBS as such individuals may have a disturbed intestinal microflora. However, further studies quest to be conducted until more consistent results are being obtained. At present the results obtained from studies are inconsistent, because the factors that could be playing an important role in the mode in which these probiotics act are not clearly understood. Gamma-oryzanol is a steryl ferulates alloy obtained from brown rice bran oil.It has a number of beneficial activities in the body, and especially has very good antioxidant effect. The oil is also being utilised in sunscreen. T he oil acts as an organic radical scavenger which was able to reduce oxidisation of lipids. Several tests conducted in the laboratory using several scavenging brasss such as scavenging DPHH radical, and OH or O2- scavenging radicals have demonstrated the antioxidant properties of gamma-oryzanol. Oxidation acceleration tests were being performed to compare the effect of gamma-oryzanol with other antioxidants such as BHA and BHT.The antioxidant properties of gamma-oryzanol may be attributed to the presence of large amounts of PUFA. Small quantities of gamma-oryzanol added to other oils helps to prevent lipid oxidation (Juliano C. , 2005, 146-154). Studies conducted on the on gamma-oryzanol demonstrate that it may beneficial to reduce all disturbance in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system. Stress-related ulcers were reduced to some extent in animal administered gamma-oryzanol (Itaya, K. et al, 1976, 474-481).Studies have also demonstrated that gamma-oryzanol produces a s timulating and as well as a inhibiting effect on the movements of the gastric and ileal mucosa. This is produced due to the effect of gamma-oryzanol on the central nervous system (Mizonishi, T. , 1980, 47-55). Due to the mucosa-protective function, anti-oxidant effect, and control over bowel movements, gamma-oryzanol, has shown some beneficial effect in helping to reduce the symptoms of IBS. However, detailed human studies need to be conducted in order to determine the precise effect that gamma-oryzanol can produce.

Friday, January 25, 2019

International trade theory Essay

AbstractIn this reading a deem of global lot in theories argon relieve oneselfulateed to help the reader better understand wherefore it is beneficial for a field to engage in inter disciplineistic mess, and explains the patterns of foundation(prenominal) great deal that is pursued in the world economy. It is understood how the theories of smith, Ricardo, and Heckscher-Ohlin all(prenominal) engage strong cases for unrestricted free trade. In contrast, the mercantilist doctrine and, to a slighter extent, the red-hot trade scheme can be interpreted to carry government intervention to promote trades through and through subsidies and to limit imports through tariffs and quotas.In explain the pattern of outside(a) trade, the exception of mercantilism, which is silent on this issue, the disparate theories offer mostly complementary report. Although no integrity scheme whitethorn explain the app atomic number 18nt pattern of outside(a) trade, taken together, t he possibility of  proportional degree payoff, the Heckscher-Ohlin theory, the carrefour life- wheel theory, the innovative trade theory, and porters beers theory of depicted object competitory reward do conjure which ciphers are important. congener advantage tells us that harvest- eonivity differences are important Heckscher-Ohlin tells us that factor endowment fund matter the mathematical product life-cycle theory informs the reader that where a new product is introduced is important the new trade theory inform the reader that change magnitude returns to specialization and first mover advantages matter and ostiary theory states that all these factors may be important in so far as they affect the four components of the national diamond.Introduction supranational dole out is the swop of capital, goods, and go across supranational allowances of territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product in addition k in a flash as GDP. While worldwide trade has been present throughout much of history, its economic, social, and political importance has been on the erect in juvenile eras. People trade beca physical exercise they look at that they bring in from the exchange. They may need or want the goods or services. Industrialization advanced in technology transportation, globalization, multinational corporations, and out outsourcing are all having a major impact on the supranational trade system. Increasing internationalistic trade is crucial to the length of globalization. Without international trade, nations would be special to the goods and services nonplusd within their borders. International trade is, in principle, not different from domestic trade as the motive and the behavior of parties involved in a trade do not change fundamentally regardless of whether trade is across a border or not.The main difference is that international trade is typically to a big(p)er extent hail ly than domestic trade. The centralize of this es utter is to understand the different theories in international trade. First, the discussion of mercantilism, even though mercantilism is an old and largely discredited doctrine that method echoes remain in redbrick political debate and in the trade policies of m some(prenominal) countries. Secondly, the despotic advantage theory by Adam Smith. Smiths theory was the first to explain why unrestricted free trade is beneficial to a boorish. light trade refers to a situation where a government does not  flak to influence through quotas or duties what its citizen can acquire from an different plain, or what they draw and sell to another agricultural. Smith argues that the invisible hand of the mechanism, rather than government policy, should destine what a field imports and what are exports. His competitions imply that such a laissez-faire stance toward trade was in the best interests of a res publica. Building on Smiths feat are ii additional theories that we shall review. One is the theory of comparative advantage, advanced by the nineteenth century English economist David Ricardo. This theory is the intellectual foot of the modern argument for unrestricted free trade. As the 20th century approach, 2 Swedish economists, Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin, who theory is kn avow as the Heckscher- Ohlin Theory, refined Ricardos work.The Benefits of championshipThe preponderant strength of the theories by these economists was that they identify with precision the specific benefits of international trade. Common sense suggests that some international trade is beneficial. For example, nobody would suggest America produce their own oil, due to lack of resources. America could benefit from trade by exchanging some of the products it can produce at a low cost wheat for some products in cannot produce at all oil. Thus by engaging in international trade, china pulls wheat and America set aheads oil.The theories of Smith, Ricardo, and Heckscher-Ohlin go beyond this common sense notion, however, to visual aspect why it is beneficial for a boorish to engage in international trade even for products it is able to produce for itself. This is a difficult supposition for people to grasp. For example many people in the United States believe that American consumers should buy products produced in the United States by American companies whenever viable to help save American jobs from foreign competition. The same kind of flag-waving(prenominal) sentiments can be discover in many other countries.However, the theories of the economists create an understanding that a countrys economy may put one over if its citizens buy authorized products from other nations that could be produced at base. The gains arise because international trade allows a country to specialize in the manufacture and export of products that can be produced most efficiently in that country, while importation pro ducts that be produced more efficient in other countries. The economic argument is often difficult for segments of a countrys population to accept. With their prospective threatened by imports, American textile companies and their employees keep back tried to yield the U.S. government to limit the importation of textiles by demanding quotas and tariffs.The Pattern of International TradeThe theories of Smith, Ricardo, and Heckscher-Ohlin excessively help to explain the pattern of international trade that we observe in the world economy. Some aspects of the patterns are east to understand. Climate and innate resources endowments explain why certain countries export certain products. For example, Ghana exports cocoa, brazil exports coffee, Saudi Arabia exports oil, and China exports catfish. David Ricardos theory of comparative advantage offers an explanation in terms of international differences in advertise productiveness. The more educate Heckscher- Ohlin theory emphasizes the interplay between the proportions in which the factors of business (such as land, job, and capital) are acquirable in different countries and the proportion in which they are needed for producing exceptional goods.One untimely response to the failure of the Heckscher-Ohlin theory to explain the observed pattern of international trade was the product life-cycle theory. Proposed by Raymond Vernon, this theory suggested that early in their life cycle, most new products are produced in and exported from the country in which they were demoteed. As a new product becomes widely genuine internationally, however, doing starts in other countries. By the 1980s, Paul Krugman an economist from mama Institute of Technology (MIT) developed the r growthary theory of trade known as the new trade theory. New trade theory stresses that in some cases countries specialize in the production and export of particular product not because of essential differences in factor endowment, but becaus e in certain industries the world grocery can support only limited number of tightsMercantilismThe main theory of mercantilism was that it was in a countrys best interests to maintain a trade surplus, to export more than it imported. By doing so, a country would accumulate specie and argent and consequently, affix its national wealth and prestige. Consistent with this belief, the mercantilist doctrine advocated government intervention to execute a surplus in the balance of trade. The mercantilists saw no celibacy in large volume of trade. Rather, the recommended policies to maximize exports and minimize imports. To achieve this imports, were limited by tariffs and quotas, while exports were subsidized. Developed in the sixteenth century, mercantilism was one of the earliest efforts to develop an economic theory. This theory stated that a countrys wealth was determined by the amount of its gold and silver holdings. In its simplest sense, mercantilists believed that a count ry should increase its holdings of gold and silver by promoting exports and discouraging imports. In other words, if people in other countries buy more from you (exports) than they sell to you (imports), then they pretend to pay you the difference in gold and silver.The objective of to each one country was to have a trade surplus, or a situation where the set of exports are colossaler than the hold dear of imports, and to avoid a trade deficit, or a situation where the value of imports is greater than the value of exports. A closer look at world history from the 1500s to the late 1800s helps explain why mercantilism flourished. The 1500s marked the rise of new nation-states, whose rulers wanted to strengthen their nations by building larger armies and national institutions. By increasing exports and trade, these rulers were able to wrap up more gold and wealth for their countries. One way that many of these new nations promoted exports was to impose restrictions on imports. Th is dodging is called protectionism and is stillness utilise today. Nations expanded their wealth by using their colonies more or less the world in an effort to tally more trade and amass more riches. The British compound empire was one of the more prospered examples it sought to increase its wealth by using raw materials from places ranging from what are now the Americas and India. France, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain were also successful in building large colonial empires that generated extensive wealth for their governing nations.Although mercantilism is one of the oldest trade theories, it rest part of modern thinking. Countries such as Japan, China, Singapore, Taiwan, and even Germany still advance exports and discourage imports through a form of neo-mercantilism in which the countries promote a combination of protectionist policies and restrictions and domestic- constancy subsidies. Nearly every country, at one point or another, has implemented some form of p rotectionist policy to guard key industries in its economy. While export-oriented companies usually support protectionist policies that favor their industries or firms, other companies and consumers are hurt by protectionism.Taxpayers pay for government subsidies of select exports in the form of higher taxes. Import restrictions lead to higher prices for consumers, who pay more for foreign- do goods or services. Free-trade advocates highlight how free trade benefits all members of the global community, while mercantilisms protectionist policies only benefit select industries, at the expense of some(prenominal)(prenominal) consumers and other companies, within and outside of the industry. The Flaw with mercantilism was that it viewed trade as a zero-sum game. (A zero- sum game is one in which a gain by one country results in a loss by another.) It was left to Adam Smith and David Ricardo to show the deadsightedness of this approach and to award that trade is a positive-sum game, or a situation in which all countries can benefit. The mercantilist doctrine is by no means dead.Absolute benefitIn 1776, Adam Smith questioned the leading mercantile theory of the time in The Wealth of Nations. Smith offered a new trade theory called absolute advantage, which focused on the ability of a country to produce a good more efficiently than another nation. Smith attacked the mercantilist hypothesis that trade is a zero-sum game. Smith argued that countries differ in their ability to produce goods efficiently. Smith reasoned that trade between countries shouldnt be regulate or restricted by government policy or intervention. He stated that trade should flow indwellingly according to market stuffs. Hypothetically, say ii-country world, if Country A could produce a good cheaper or blistering (or both) than Country B, then Country A had the advantage and could focus on specializing on producing that good. Similarly, if Country B was better at producing another good, it could focus on specialization as well. By specialization, countries would generate efficiencies, because their apprehend force would become more acquisitioned by doing the same tasks. Production would also become more efficient, because there would be an incentive to create hurried and better production methods to increase the specialization. The absolute advantage occurs in the production of a product when it is more efficient than any other country in producing it.According to Smith, countries should specialize in the production of goods for which they have an absolute advantage then trade these for goods produced by other countries. In Smiths theory reasoned that with increased efficiencies, people in both countries would benefit and trade should be encouraged. His theory stated that a nations wealth shouldnt be judged by how much gold and silver it had but rather by the living standards of its people. Smiths basic argument therefore, is that a country should never produce goods at home that it can buy at a lower cost from other countries. According to Smith, by specializing in the production of goods in which each has an absolute advantage, both countries benefit by engaging in trade.Comparative AdvantageThe challenge to the absolute advantage theory was that some countries may be better at producing both goods and, therefore, have an advantage in many areas. In contrast, another country may not have any useful absolute advantages. To answer this challenge, David Ricardo, an English economist, introduced the theory of comparative advantage in 1817. Ricardo reasoned that even if Country A had the absolute advantage in the production of both products, specialization and trade could still occur between 2 countries. Comparative advantage occurs when a country cannot produce a product more efficiently than the other country however, it can produce that product better and more efficiently than it does other goods. The difference between these two theorie s is subtle. Comparative advantage focuses on the relative productivity differences, whereas absolute advantage looks at the absolute productivity. Lets look at a simplified hypothetical example to gild the subtle difference between these principles. Miranda is a Wall Street attorney who charges $500 per hour for her legal services. It turns out that Miranda can also token faster than the administrative assistants in her office, who are paid $40 per hour. rase though Miranda clearly has the absolute advantage in both skill sets, should she do both jobs? No. For every hour Miranda decides to type alternatively of do legal work, she would be giving up $460 in income. Her productivity and income willing be highest if she specializes in the higher-paid legal services and hires the most measure up administrative assistant, who can type fast, although a little slower than Miranda. By having both Miranda and her assistant concentrate on their respective tasks, their overall produ ctivity as a team is higher. This is comparative advantage. A person or a country will specialize in doing what they do comparatively better. In reality, the world economy is more complex and consists of more than two countries and products. Barriers to trade may exist, and goods must be transported, stored, and distributed. However, this simplistic example demonstrates the basis of the comparative advantage theory.Heckscher-Ohlin Theory (Factor Proportions Theory)The theories of Smith and Ricardo didnt help countries determine which products would give a country an advantage. Both theories assumed that free and clear(p) markets would lead countries and producers to determine which goods they could produce more efficiently. In the early 1900s, two Swedish economists, Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin, focused their attention on how a country could gain comparative advantage by producing products that utilized factors that were in abundance in the country. Their theory is based on a c ountrys production factorsland, labor, and capital, which provide the funds for investment in plants and equipment. They determined that the cost of any factor or resource was a function of come forth and demand. Factors that were in great supply relative to demand would be cheaper factors in great demand relative to supply would be more expensive.Their theory, also called the factor proportions theory, stated that countries would produce and export goods that required resources or factors that were in great supply and, therefore, cheaper production factors. In contrast, countries would import goods that required resources that were in short supply, but higher demand. For example, China and India are home to cheap, large pools of labor. wherefore these countries have become the optimal locations for labor-intensive industries like textiles and garments.Leontief ParadoxIn the early 1950s, Russian-born American economist Wassily W. Leontief studied the US economy near and noted tha t the United States was abundant in capital and, therefore, should export more capital-intensive goods. However, his research using actual data showed the opposite the United States was importing more capital-intensive goods. According to the factor proportions theory, the United States should have been importing labor-intensive goods, but instead it was actually exporting them. His analysis became known as the Leontief Paradox because it was the reverse of what was expected by the factor proportions theory. In ensuant years, economists have noted historically at that point in time, labor in the United States was both available in steady supply and more productive than in many other countries hence it made sense to export labor-intensive goods.Over the decades, many economists have used theories and data to explain and minimize the impact of the paradox. However, for what remains clear is that international trade is a complex and has impacted numerous and often-changing factor s. Trade cannot be explained neatly by one single theory, and more importantly, our understanding of international trade theories incubates to evolve. Product Life Cycle TheoryRaymond Vernon, a Harvard bloodline School professor, developed the product life cycle theory in the mid-sixties. The theory, originating in the field of marketing, stated that a product life cycle has three distinct stages (1) new product, (2) the growth of the product (3)maturing product (4) the subside in the product. The theory assumed that production of the new product will occur completely in the home country of its innovation. In the 1960s this was a useful theory to explain the manufacturing success of the United States. US manufacturing was the globally dominant producer in many industries after mankind War II. It has also been used to describe how the personal computer (PC) went through its product cycle. The PC was a new product in the mid-seventies and developed into a mature product during th e 1980s and 1990s.Today, the PC is in the standardized product stage, and the majority of manufacturing and production process is done in low-cost countries in Asia and Mexico. The product life cycle theory has been less able to explain current trade patterns where innovation and manufacturing occur rough the world. For example, global companies even conduct research and development in growing markets where highly skilled labor and facilities are usually cheaper. Even though research and development is typically associated with the first or new product stage and therefore completed in the home country, these developing or emerging-market countries, such as India and China, offer both highly skilled labor and new research facilities at a substantial cost advantage for global firms.Global Strategic Rivalry TheoryGlobal strategic rivalry theory emerged in the 1980s and was based on the work of economists Paul Krugman and Kelvin Lancaster. Their theory focused on MNCs and their ef forts to gain a warring advantage against other global firms in their industry. Firms will risk global competition in their industries and in order to prosper, they must develop competitive advantages. The critical ways that firms can obtain a sustainable competitive advantage are called the barriers to entry for that industry. The barriers to entry refer to the obstacles a new firm may face when trying to enter into an industry or new market. The barriers to entry that corporations may seek to optimize allow research and development, the ownership of intellectual property rights, economies of scale, unique business processes or methods as well as extensive experience in the industry, and the control of resources or favorable access to raw materials.Porters matter Competitive Advantage TheoryIn the continuing evolution of international trade theories, Michael Porter of Harvard Business School developed a new model to explain national competitive advantage in 1990. Porters theory stated that a nations engagement in an industry depends on the capacity of the industry to innovate and upgrade. His theory focused on explaining why some nations are more competitive in certain industries. To explain his theory, Porter identified four determinants that he linked together. The four determinants are (1) local market resources and capabilities, (2) local market demand conditions, (3) local suppliers and complementary industries, and (4) local firm characteristics. Factor Conditions). Porter recognized the value of the factor proportions theory, which considers a nations resources (e.g., natural resources and available labor) as key factors in determining what products a country will import or export. Porter added to these basic factors a new list of advanced factors, which he defined as skilled labor, investments in education, technology, and infrastructure. He perceived these advanced factors as providing a country with a sustainable competitive advantage.Demand co nditions. Porter believed that a sophisticated home market is critical to ensuring ongoing innovation, thereby creating a sustainable competitive advantage. Companies whose domestic markets are sophisticated, trendsetting, and demanding forces continuous innovation and the development of new products and technologies. many a(prenominal) sources credit the demanding US consumer with forcing US software companies to continuously innovate, thus creating a sustainable competitive advantage in software products and services. Related and load-bearing(a) industries. To remain competitive, large global firms benefit from having strong, efficient supporting and related industries to provide the inputs required by the industry. Certain industries cluster geographically, which provides efficiencies and productivity. local anaesthetic firm characteristics. Local firm characteristics include firm strategy, industry structure, and industry rivalry. Local strategy affects a firms competitive ness. A healthy direct of rivalry between local firms will spur innovation and competitiveness. In addition to the four determinants of the diamond, Porter also noted that government and expectation play a part in the national competitiveness of industries. Governments can, by their actions and policies, increase the competitiveness of firms and occasionally entire industries. Porters theory, along with the other modern, firm-based theories, offers an interesting interpretation of international trade trends. Nevertheless, they remain relatively new and minimally tested theories.Todays Dominate International Trade TheoryThe theories covered in this reading explain the evolution of the international trade theory. While they have helped economists, governments, and businesses better understand international trade and how to promote, regulate, and manage it, these theories are occasionally contradicted by real-world events. Countries dont have absolute advantages in many areas of prod uction or services and, in fact, the factors of production arent neatly distributed between countries. Some countries have a disproportionate benefit of some factors. The United States has ample productive land that can be used for a wide thread of agricultural products. It also has extensive access to capital. While its labor pool may not be the cheapest, it is among the best educated in the world. These advantages in the factors of production have helped the United States become the largest and richest economy in the world.Nevertheless, the United States also imports a vast amount of goods and services, as US consumers use their wealth to purchase what they need and wantmuch of which is now manufactured in other countries that have sought to create their own comparative advantages through cheap labor, land, or production costs. As a result, its not clear that any one theory is dominant around the world. This section has sought to highlight the basics of international trade t heory to enable you to understand the realities that face global businesses. In practice, governments and companies use a combination of these theories to both interpret trends and develop strategy. Just as these theories have evolved over the past five hundred years, they will continue to change and adapt as new factors impact international trade.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Michelangelo’s David

Introduction I. Michelangelos David A. First supporting data for the sub-topic 1. Description of Michelangelos masterpiece 2. Detail of the statue of David B. reincarnation Period 1. European civilization 2. The story of David II. Political Implications A. First supporting information for the sub-topic 1. The ruseisan 2. influence of the contrapposto style B. The symbol of Renaissance sculptures 1. Great and Heroic 2.Michelangelo apothegm himself as a master III. Timeless Art A. Michelangelos consort of art 1. Florentine humanists 2. Medieval supernaturalism B. Predominant social philosophy 1. The realistic measure of all things 2. The worship of beauty ? THESIS Michelangelos David, is the well-nigh timeless and famous work of art of the renaissance period. Not still was the outcome of the art work a masterpiece, but also the creative person himself was one of the most influential people within that time period.The work of Michelangelo influenced recital. An entire civili zation was affected by the creation and the symbolism of Michelangelos David. Michelangelos David Annotated Bibliography Keliner F. S, Gardner H. , Mamiya C. J. (1995) Gardners Art Through the Ages This book presents a comminuted depiction of the art work and events that surrounded Michelangelos statue of David. It includes a diachronic timeline that parallels the influence that works of art had in the renaissance era.It describes the artistic events that changed history in such a way that you can get the vegetable marrow of what went on at the time. Also, in the text itself, it gives definitive explanations to what is happening at the time so that you can understand fully what the artist is maxim or where he is coming from. Gill A. (2004) Il Gigante Michelangelo, Florence, and the David 1492-1504 This book is a well-researched work of history, from a political and artistic point of view.I find the authors proficiency of bringing the reader into Michelangelos world very effecti ve. The author demonstrates concretely how Renaissance politics and maneuvering affected Michelangelo on many levels. The history described in this story is very luxuriant and supports my thesis. Scigliano E. (2005) Michelangelos Mountain The Quest for Perfection in the Marble Quarries of Carrara This book contains the story of Michelangelos search for the stone he wanted, his inveterate relationship with the city where he found it, and that city today.Only recently the seventeen foot tall statue of David was restored, and the world was reminded of all its beauty. The author reminds us of the risks interpreted by quarrymen and by Michelangelo himself as they worked together to find the perfect stone, one that would do justice to Michelangelos vision. Wallace W. E. (1998) Michelangelo The Complete Sculpture, Painting, Architecture This book includes very detailed pictures accompanied comments and/or information about Michelangelos David.This five leger series reproduces about 100 articles and close to one hundred photographs in each volume. CONCLUSION Michelangelos David was not just a forge sculpture of a great man. Michelangelos David embodied the very meaning of the phrase renaissance. The statue of David was the reason for the fame and fortune that followed this great artist. The influence of this particular piece of Michelangelo is so great that there have been many a replicas of the original installed all over the world.

Friday, January 18, 2019

Majority Rule and Minority Rights

In a free presidential term system, it elicit be tell that the corner stone is the concept of mass hold and nonage rights. The absolute mass is the group of hatful that is composed of more than half of the entire defer that participated in a certain event or in an election. On the other hand, the minority is considered as the subordinate group and is not politic eithery dominant in a given society that is ruled by the concept of majority rules.The president together with totally the other officials that are to take the responsibility of g overning the province is determined through the suffrages of the bulk and whoever has the largest vote takes the rig. The election procedures and requirements regarding the election of the president and other officials are on a lower floor Article 2, Section 2 of the United States Constitution. However, the power that is given to the pick out president is excessively limited and restricted under the same Article.As express earl ier, the re modelative with the most number of votes will act for the majority whom in the first place was chosen by the majority to be in the position. However, although the elected official represents the majority, the minority still retains the rights given by the brass and expects the majority to acknowledge their rights as well. The minority will not stay the minority forever and in every issue and situation. The minority are free to the idea that in cast to have a government activity competent enough, the will of the majority must be fulfilled.It is not plainly the concept of majority rule that is beta not only on the American government but in all democratic government as well but also the concept of minority rights. The rights of the minority must also be acknowledge and protected. To ensure that the minority retains their rights, the organization has limited the power of the elected officials and embedded in the constitution are certain laws that will guard the righ ts and interest of the minority.An example would be the I Amendment of the Bill of Rights that secures the rights of individuals within the state regarding matters of religion, press and speech. The IV Amendment also ensures all persons within the state are free from the fear of abuses from law enforcements regarding inordinate search and as well as seizure of property. In This effort not just the right of the minority is protected but the majority as well. Since the majority constitutes the larger population, their interest is respected which also involves closing making.It is also based on the idea that the majority knows what is best for the federation as a whole. It is important to guard the rights not just of the majority but of the minority as well. The Constitution ensures that the right of all individuals in the State is respected and protected. Majority rule had been limited in order to ensure that the majority will not oppress the minority then protecting the rights of the minority tour the majority rules.This is important because the minorities are also people of the State that also contributes to the economic aspect of the State that is important in maintaining and strengthening its power. If the minorities are oppressed there will be divisions within the State, something that is even harder to addressed, even harder than problems that the State encounters with other nations. Conflicts within the state may also result in the fall of the State as a whole, not just economically but in all aspects as well especially in maintaining its power and status.The tension between the concept of majority rule and minority right is always present in every democratic constitution. Thus, it is important for public officials to be suitable to make decisions on when should the rule and interest of the majority be decreased in order to protect the rights of the minority and when should the right of the minority be restricted in order to avoid the submersion of the majority rule. These questions must be addressed properly to prevent irreparable damage that can be brought on either the majority or the minority.It is important that while the majority has the power, the will and interest of the minority are also considered and wanted in order to maintain the peace and good relations of the people within the State as well as the political and complaisant power of the State. As stated earlier, the principle of majority rule over minority right can be clearly observed in politics especially in elections. This principle will again be seen in the 2008 presidential election wherein more than 10 candidates are involved.Whoever gets the vote of the majority will govern the country in the place of the majority. Although the success will be governing the country, the constitution limits the power given to the elected president in order to protect the rights and interest of the majority whom in the first place do not chose the elected. Another event in which the concept of majority rule and minority right can be seen is in the cause of the Jena 6 in Jena, Louisiana. It can be give tongue to that racism is a part of the system wherein the white are considered to dominate.In the case of the Jena 6, although white can be said to represent the majority, the rights of the minority are still respected through many the rallies that were performed. This also shows the importance why the right of the minority must be respected and protected, to avoid factions among the members of the residential area as well as revolt against those who are in the position that were representation of the majority and even to the majority itself. Indeed, the principle of majority rule with respect to minority right is the foundation of every democratic country such as the United States itself.It is also a key for reading and unification.ReferencesDavison, B. (02, December 2006). Majority rule with respect to minority rights.Retrieved January 19, 2008 from http//www. associatedcontent. com/article/93543/majority_rule_with_respect_to_minority. hypertext mark-up language Patrick, J. (2007).Majority rule and minority rights. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from http//www. student-voices. org/Dictionary. aspx? myTerm=Majority+Rule+and+Minority+Rights Legal learning Institute. (No Date).United States Constitution. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from http//www. law. cornell. edu/constitution/index. html.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Steadiness behavior style

The steadiness behavior sprint is a pattern of behavior where the person in question prefers a poky paced ending making process, he or she is focused on relationships in the working and social environment, and avoids pushy or aggressive people. Individuals who exhibit this style of behavior are active listeners and develop relationships easily with others who exhibit the akin personality traits. This type of behavior style is mostly found in people who subscribe professions that help others such as a doctor, teacher, deem or financial advisor.The personal weakness in people who choose the steadiness style of behavior lies in the ability to react apace by making a spur of the moment decision as it might entail more of a risk than others. These individuals do not express their feelings openly, as they might appear weak in the eye of others. To avoid conflict, stress or apparent weakness he or she volition often tell others exactly what they want to hear thusly discouraging clos e relationships in the end. To communicate with people who exhibit this touch behavior style it is important to keep many things in judging before you approach.These individuals are steady and somewhat cautious therefore, it is important to throw his or her trust and to be supportive of their feelings as well as heart-whole about your interest in them. As these individuals avoid barbarian situations and are resistant to change naturally, forcing him or her into a quick decision will ultimately break open communication. A general nonthreatening and sincere approach will create a positive relationship. In the superior setting it is possible to develop a close working relationship and help the person who exhibits the steadiness behavior style.As these individuals are very routine, dowry them realize that there is more than one approach to any situation will often open their mind to hot ideas, breaking commonplace behavior and open the passageway to new ideas. Encouraging beha viors that are out-of-door of the norm and helping these individuals adjust to alternate solutions consistently will allow for a feeling of acceptance therefore he or she will openly express ideas, which could lead to a stronger working relationship and new innovative thoughts.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Future of Nuclear Power in Sustainable Development Essay

With the existence append and frugal growth, susceptibility is becoming an essential part for training. To well-nigh extent, in any culture take a leak out, reliable access to modern vigor function is dealed. However, the world is facing the nil imbalance that of energy times hurt consequences for the environment so admiting this growth in demand date safeguarding the environment poses a development challenge. To date, the use of thermo thermo thermo thermo thermo atomic condition has been concentrate in industrialized countries, which might play in filling the growing gap between what the world indispensablenesss to consume in conditions of energy and what the environment tells us we flock sustain is considered.1Development of spooky world-beaterIn the last few years, the nuclear condition is in the first place used in the industrialized countries. More and more(prenominal) countries pay their c atomic number 18 to the introduction of nuclear exponent w eapons platforms, such as Turkey, Egypt, Jordan, Yemen, etc, non check to Asia. Also, other countries such as Argentina, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, and South Africa be working to draw out their works. As is shown by statistics, of the worlds 439 authoritatively operating nuclear causation reactors, 403 (or 91%) ar in all OECD countries or countries with political economy in transition 1. In terms of electrical generating subject matter, 349 GWCe) out of 368 GWCe) , or 95% of nuclear generating capacity is installed in these countries. At present, nuclear bureau is a proved technology which has provided more than 16% of world electrical energy supply 2. In the future of nuclear military unit, galore(postnominal) distinct views atomic number 18 raised on its sustainable development, particularly to innovative reactors and elicit cycles 3. in that respect are a number of signifi preemptt environmental benefits arising from the use of nuclear supply, but it does raise its o wn environmental issues. During the operation, few radioactivity is released at a very low level into the environment either via filtered emissions to the melodic phrase or in liquid form in the cooling peeing discharged to sea. Thus, on unmatched hand, nuclear power is a insecure energy and should be phased out. On the other hand, the nuclear power can be sustainably used. Comparing with the fossil- found energy, nuclear power does not emit light speedic acid gas and other hazardous emissions, which the impact of the nuclear power chains on the health and environment is less negative than those for fossil-based energy. Currently, Europe, North the States and some countries in Asia confound been enjoying the advantages of nuclear power.2Status of Neural military groupTo date, the use of nuclear power is change magnitude. In terms of mod construction, up to now , the pattern is variant, 16 of the 30 reactors now being built are in developing countries and most of the rece nt enlargement has been centered in Asia China, for example, currently has four reactors under construction, and plans a more than five- fold expansion in its nuclear generating capacity everyplace the next 15 years. India has 7 reactors under construction, and plans roughly a seven-fold increase in capacity by 2022. Japan, Pakistan and the Republic of Korea also view plans to expand their nuclear power capacity 4,5. In the near future, additional countries in the Asia-Pacific region allow for subscribe the nuclear power option. Vietnam intends to begin construction of its first nuclear power plant in 2015. In wear thinesia plans to build two 1000 MW reactors in primordial Javaa. Recently, the faculty Generating Authority of Thailand announced plans to build two large nuclear plants, with construction to begin in 2015.In Malaysia, a comprehensive energy policy study including consideration of nuclear power- is to be completed by 2010 6. The resurgence of liaison in nuclear power 7-9 is not express mail to Asia. early(a) countries such as Jordan and Turkey are seriously considering or planning for the introduction of nuclear power programs. And many others, such as Aragentina, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan and South Africa, are working to expand existing programs. In the USA, where no new reactors has been ordered in 28 years, these trends, plus excellent mathematical operation of the existing nuclear fleet and financial incentives in the Energy insurance Act of 2005, shit led to a race to develop new nuclear power plants.Twenty countries now have new plants either under construction or under development with well everywhere half of these new nuclear plants likely to be built over the next two decades in five countries- China, India, South Korea, Japan and USA. Also, in the USA, several dozen reactors are in various stages of proposal development, fleck international nuclear vendors and service providers are forming new alliances. Finally, rising uracil prices have led to development of new mines.3Rising delight of Neural originAny negative impact on the population health and environment is unacceptable. Once it happens, it will be phased out. The negative consequences for nuclear power would be the same. If it is not possible or too pricy to improve sufficiently their guard duty, we must insist on their closing. The international conventions for nuclear safety were carried out, which legally enhance nuclear safety. Also, the IAEA updated the safety standards for reflecting the best fabrication practices 10. Importantly, both the IAEA and the world Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) , performd international networks to conduct mate reviews and exchange operating information to improve safety performance.Another Copernican actor is the strong performance of nuclear power that drives the renewed interest in nuclear power. Up to date, with more than half a cytosine of operating experience, nuclear power is becoming a m ature technology. In the past two decades, more and more earthshaking improvements are do in nuclear power plant reliability, as well as lower operating cost and a progressively improved safety record.4Problems of Nuclear index numbera) Management of radwasteAnnually, the spent nuclear terminate produced is about 10,000 tons, which is small when compared with the nearly 28 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) waste from fossil fuels 11, 12. In addition, the radwaste is most concerned point in public. Based on the expert experiences, the reasonable geologic establishment of full(prenominal) level radioactive waste is safe and feasible. But for public, it is likely stick around skeptical, which the nuclear waste administration will likely remain controversial.The vehemence in the problem of radwastes should be in obtaining the concomitant of people. On one hand, we should provide true information on comparative assessment of different energy sources. We should provide a clear report that there is no risk for the population health and environment from radwaste repositories. On the other hand, as soon as possible the countries with suitable places for repositories should license them and start the disposal process. Moreover, cooperation will be powerful to share the burden of the waste disposal cost for countries with small nuclear power programs.b) Technological innovationIf we want to develop the new reactor or fuel cycle technologies, scientific innovation is needed. Currently, the nuclear Research and Development (R&D) projects are center on enhancing nuclear safety, reducing proliferation risks, minimizing waste generation and improving economic performance 13. In particularly, many developing countries, such as some countries in Asia, have been devoted to develop small and medium coat reactor designs. These designs allow a more incremental investment than is needed for a large reactor, and provide a better match to storage-battery grid capa city in many developing countries. To some extent, these reactors are more adapted in applications 14.c) Nuclear non- proliferationWith the increasing expectations for nuclear power, there are concerns regarding the spread of nuclear weapons and sensitive nuclear technology. However, at the same time, the nuclear proliferation should be prevented. Now, a safeguard system has been established to guarantee the unaggressive application of nuclear technology. An integrated system of safeguards can and should permit effective control of non-proliferation by a combination of technical measures and the book of facts of institutional measures 15. It would occur in two strides.The first step would create a mechanism for the assurance of supply of nuclear fuel, possibly including fuel bank to be managed by the IAEA. For countries that use nuclear fuel for electricity generation, this mechanism would severe as a supplier of last resort, thereby removing the risk of having their fuel supply interrupted for non- commercial reasons. The second step would seek to bring any new operations for uranium enrichment and atomic number 94 separation under multinational control. These multinational controls should also be extend to facilities that already exist- to ensure that all countries are treated equally in terms of their nuclear capabilities.d) Economic costAlthough cost is perhaps not a major factor affecting plans for nuclear power in most areas of the world, in the United States, which has the worlds largest nuclear program and sufficient growth in electricity demand to support authentic growth in generating capacity, the cost of electricity has been the dominant factor in determining what type of capacity gets built 16. As the United States has move to slim the economic regulation of electricity generation, cost has become a competitive focus, and capital cost is the single most important factor determining the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy (University of Chicago, 2004, p. xi). In 2009 the U.S. field of study Academies published a large study of energy technologies.After reviewing many previous studies, the authors noted that cost estimates in the open literature have varied by more than a factor of two. Recent estimates have ranged from $2400/kW to as much as $6000/kW (Committee on Americas Energy upcoming, 2009, p. 526). These are cost estimates for the United States. High costs are seen in the much-delayed new Finnish reactor, discussed further below. Until new plants are built in the United States, costs will remain a major uncertainty and an obstacle to growth of the diligence.e) Public mentationDana Mead, chairman of the MIT governing body, commented that Nuclear power generates the most varied public opinion of any power generation type. According to MIT studies, 39% of those polled feel it should be reduced, 35% feel in should be increased and 11% dont believe it should be used at all the highest element of people w ho are opposed to any type of generation (remarks at the American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting, as quoted in post Engineering, August 2007). In addition to proliferation and economic cost, the main controversies regarding nuclear power are whether the public will accept new nuclear plants, whether sites can be found where the public will accept a geological repository for their spent fuel, and whether future development should be based on the once-through or the closed fuel cycle 17. Bringing the public into conclusiveness processes early will substantially improve the climate for nuclear power to go forward. (In the United States, the law requires that the federal agencies make the final decisions.)5 rising of Nuclear PowerWhile there are legato uncertainties ahead, it seems quite likely at this point that, in the near-term, new nuclear power plants will be built, both in countries that already have substantial nuclear programs and in new countries. Thus, the number of countri es with nuclear power plants will increase, and since some of these countries have small grids and limited infrastructures, it is likely that littler reactors will be used to extend to some of these needs 18, 19. In the near-term, nuclear power growth will likely be met by existing technologies and those technologies for which substantial development has already occurred. Nuclear power development will not be the only source of power to meet growing energy demands and growing concerns about global warming. The near term is also likely to see the development and deployment of more renewable power of current or evolutionary design, and possibly of clean coal technology.Other options, such as increased conservation and the deployment of more energy expeditious end-use technologies, will also be exploited. In the dourer term, more in advance(p) nuclear power plants, such as the Generation IV power plants, will likely be deployed. These will be able to meet a more diverse range of en ergy needs than the current generation of large, centralized electricity-generating power plants can meet. Possible applications let in process heat for industrial applications, the generation of fuels such as hydrogen for transportation, and a variety of possible off-grid applications 20-23. Likewise, other energy-generating technologies will continue to develop and will be deployed as appropriate. In the much longer term, these could potentially include fusion power. If that is successful, it could ultimately replace some of the technologies of today, including perhaps nuclear nuclear fission power.6ConclusionNuclear energy alone is not a solution, but it is likely in the near Future to have an increasing role as part of the global energy mix. Through the digest and investigation, it is clear that nuclear power can bring significant long term benefits in terms of increased access to energy and auspices of energy supply. Nuclear power at present does possess proven technologies t hat ensure adequate safety level and safe radwaste disposal. Non-proliferation of nuclear materials is effectively supported by the system of IAEA safeguards. This structure is sound and it provides the rear for the further development of nuclear energy. However, the nuclear industry needs to work on new, innovative technologies in order on one hand, to reduce the costs and thus answer the strong challenge of competing energy generation technologies, on the other hand, to facilitate the dialogue between the nuclear industry and the public by providing more transparent, convincing solutions and designs A successful development of innovative nuclear technologies addressing these two key challenges would permit a large development of nuclear energy in the next century.Thus, in the predictable future, the need for the development and deployment of more advanced versions of todays energy production technologies will continue, and all promising technologies should be pursued. It is lik ely that different technologies could be favored in different circumstances. These circumstances could be based on a variety of factors, including national policy, regulatory and other mechanisms in different countries, and geopolitical situations (remoteness, availability of particular resources, etc.). Globally, it appears that the world is likely to need substantial new contributions from all sources, particularly those capable of supplying significant amounts of clean, low-carbon energy. Nuclear power is one of the most promising of these sources.References1 international self-activating Energy situation , Nuclear applied science Review, August 2006, IAEA, Vienna , Austria. 2 Energy, electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the period up to 2020, Reference Data series No. 1, July 2002, IAEA, Vienna , Austria. 3 International Automatic Energy Agency IAEA Bulletin, vividness 49/1. September 2007, IAEA, Vienna, Austria. 4 Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, .5 IAEA, 2008b. Nuclear Power Reactors in the macrocosm. IAEA Reference Data Series no. 2. Vienna. 6 IAEA, 2009. Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2030. IEAE Reference Data Series no. 1. Vienna. 7 Jones, J.M., 2010. U.S. support for nuclear power climbs to new high of 62%., March 30. 2010. 8 sustainable Development in a Dynamic world, world Development Report- 2005, introduction Bank. 9 Bharadwaj, A., Krishnan, L.V., Rajgopal, S., 2008. Nuclear Power in India The Road Ahead. Center for Study of Science. Technology & insurance, Bangalore (September). 10 Bilboa y Leon, S., 2009. Development of advanced nuclear reactors worldwide. Nucl.Plant J. September October. 27 (5), 3642. 11 Rashad S.M. , Hammad , F.H. Nuclear Power and the Environment Compartative Assessment of Environmental and health Impacts of Eelectricity Generating Systems, Applied Energy 65 (2000) 211-229. 12 Rashad S.M. , Nuclear Power and the Environment Prospects and Challenges, work o f Energy for Sustainable Development and Science for the Future of the Islamic institution and Humanity Conference , Organized in Kuching / Sarawak , Malaysia 29 Sept-2 Oct. 2003 Islamic World Academy of Sciences, Amman , Jordan, 2006. 13 Innovative Technologies for Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Nuclear Power , Proceedings of International Conference held in Vienna, 23-26 Hune 2003organized by IAEA et a1 , Vienna, Austria, 2004. 14 International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle, . 15 Nuclear Power and Proliferation Resistance Securing Benefits, Limiting Risk. American Physical Society, College Park, MD (May). 16 Chicago, University of., 2004. The Economic Future of Nuclear Power Study Conducted at the University of Chicago. 2004(August). Cirincione, J., 2009. Chain reaction. Foreign Policy (May 7). 17 Nuclear Energy Study Group, American Physical Society dialog box on Public Affairs, 2005. 18 MIT, 2003. The Future of Nuclear Energy An Interdisciplinary MIT Study. . 1 9 Deutch, J.M., Forsberg, C.W., Kadak, A.C., Kazimi, M.S., Moniz, E.J., Parsons, J.E., 2009.Update of the MIT 2003 Future of Nuclear Power Cambridge, MA. 20 InterAcademy Council, 2007. Lighting the Way Toward a Sustainable Energy Future. Amsterdam. (October). 21 MacFarlane, A., Asselstine, J., Ahearne, J., 2008. The future of nuclear energy policy recommendations. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (December 11). 22 MIT (Massachusetts bring of Technology), 2003. The Future of Nuclear Power An Interdisciplinary MIT Study. Cambridge, MA. 23 Nuclear Energy Agency (France), 2008. Uranium Resources Sufficient to Meet Projected Nuclear Energy Requirements foresighted into the Future. Paris (June 3).

Opportunities for you and your organization in the maintenance of a blog to address customer issues Essay

Blogs can be looseness and very informative. Blogs could have a major impact on students, ability, and staff. The opportunities for students, faculty, and staff are endless. Most students are fit within an age grouping that grew up with networking and social applied science. They are familiar with blogs and social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. For some, it is their primary means of getting study and learning. With 36,000 students, blogging can be a means of communicating security concerns, major impacts to the university operations, and crisis management.As mention in McNurlin and Sprague (2006), Dan Farber suggests One corporate use of blogs is for crisis management. A blog can be more appropriate than e-mail in managing a crisis (such as a fire or a security breach). All the postings can be on one site, in journaling style, rather than passed as disconnected e-mails, notes Farber. (p. 292) Students and faculty also like to voice their opinion round the focussing t he university is run. Blogs would overhaul them a voice to express those opinions due to the nature blogs.McNurlin and Sprague went on to show that What readers seem to trust about blogs, that they do not trust about conventional media, is their opinionated and personal nature. (p. 293) Blogs would also be a rich marketing tool for the university. Blogs hosted by students could give direct advice and opinion to prospective students. According to Laudon and Laudon (2006), Blogs provide a more personal way of presenting information to the public and prospective customers about new products and services. (p. 123) Finally, blogs are a way to manage customer relationships.Faculty, staff, and students are considered customers of the information technology department. It is important to advance changes, outages, and useful information that help to make the customer experience with technology more enjoyable. The more tips and helpful advice IT can give to end-users, the better the exp erience. In turn, IT can learn the needs, wants, and opinions of their customers. According to Haag, et, al (2005), Customers interact with companies in many a(prenominal) ways, and each interaction should be easy, enjoyable, and error free.